“Sexing” a pigeon, in other words figuring out whether it is male or female, can be a difficult task. As pigeons have no outer genitals you cannot use these to discover their gender. For this reason you must use other methods of observation.
Males are nearly always larger than female pigeons. They are much heavier, plumper and with fuller feathers.
Inspect your pigeons' faces. Male pigeons have a more pronounced, higher crown than females. The females' eyes will be higher on her head and the males' will be lower because of this difference.
Watch closely during mating season – males tend to bow their heads and scrape their tail feathers on the ground during this season, unlike females who are generally meant to be impressed by this. Males will also puff up their chests and feathers to put on a show.
Males are much more aggressive than females and more likely to fight with other pigeons over food or territory or even a mate.
When it comes to hatching, male pigeons generally sit on eggs during the morning whilst females take their turn in the afternoon and evening.