How to Feed Your Pigeon a Healthy Diet
In the wild, pigeons are divided into two groups based on their diet. Some live on mostly on seeds, plus insects, green shoots and leaves. These are the seed-eaters, grouped in the subfamily Columbinae. Most domestic pigeons are seed-eaters. The other pigeons are the fruit-eaters in the subfamily Treroninae. They are difficult to keep in captivity because of their demanding diet.
Feed your bird raw greens that are rich in minerals like spinach, romaine lettuce, endive, watercress and clover. While iceberg lettuce is an acceptable treat, it has less nutritional value than other greens and is comparatively high in sugars, so it shouldn't be a major staple in your pigeon's diet.
Your seed-eating or fruit-eating pigeon will enjoy fresh fruits like berries, cherries, apples and pears. Any type of non-citrus fruit is fine for your bird. Hall also notes that you should only use fresh unspoiled fruit, never canned or frozen fruit. Fruit should be cut up into small pieces, but not put through a food processor.
Most commercial pigeon foods are made with raw grains, seeds and legumes. Ingredients can include peas, maple peas, hemp seeds, milo, wheat and canary grass seeds. If you aren't feeding a commercial pelleted product to your seed-eating bird as a staple, make sure to feed it plenty of these raw grains, seeds and legumes.